Brokers of trading carbon credit in india ppt
Assessing and Monitoring the Impacts of Climate Change The Nez Perce Tribe indirectly monitors the impacts of climate change through inventories of natural resources. Forest health conditions are monitored over time through a network of permanent growth plots that are used to determine tree growth, yield, mortality, and insects and disease activity.
These plots were initially established in , and are re-measured on a ten-year cycle. Drought cycles have a direct effect on tree growth and mortality rates. In addition, the tribe documents the frequency and severity wildfires, assesses the condition of vegetation in relation to historic conditions, and monitors stream flows, water yield, and water temperature.
In addition to the goals already mentioned above, an over arching goal of the Nez Perce Tribe has always been restoration. Restoration of the project site to its historical and forested condition includes many environmental, social, and cultural ancillary benefits. These benefits include, but are not limited to, improved water quality through watershed protection, reduced soil erosion and sedimentation, which improves fish habitat in the river below, and the restoration of wildlife habitat.
Social benefits would include employment opportunities for tribal members associated with tree planting and the application of seedling protection materials, as well as thinning jobs in the future. Cultural benefits include gathering of traditional roots, berries and medicinal plants as well as recreational activities. Recently, as the carbon markets have softened and actual project development has slowed, the tribe cites as its biggest accomplishment in the last two years; the increased awareness and education of other tribes of the Carbon sales process and opportunities for more carbon sequestration projects in Indian country.
Overall the initial challenge of learning and understanding the terminology and convoluted process required to engage in carbon offset markets, as well as identifying partners and resources was daunting and required a lot of time and commitment. The uncertainty within the United States and lack of federal legislation on climate change has reduced the current value of carbon and the willingness of the tribe to invest in carbon offset projects. A growing number of firms specializing in developing forest management strategies to quantify and market carbon offsets using the various and evolving carbon registries or standards are contacting tribes with the desire to capitalize on the vast area of tribal forest lands across the country.
There is reluctance among tribes to trust outside firms interested in developing plans for tribal forest lands, verifying existing tribal forest inventories, certifying tribal forest management plans, and brokering the carbon offsets.
Many tribes have competent inventory and planning departments fully capable of determining carbon inventories and developing local management strategies to enhance carbon sequestration, but need a clear set of guidelines rather than the evolving array of registries and associated standards currently used to quantify carbon so that projects can be implemented with consistency and confidence.
Stability in the price of carbon is also needed to justify investment and minimize risk. Speculation that the price of carbon offsets will significantly increase if legislation is approved has created a reluctance to sell at prices where the cost of project development, forest certification, third party verification, and brokerage fees account for a significant portion of the potential revenue.
A general recommendation based on experience to date is to become educated and involved, but wait until legislation materializes and markets mature. The Nez Perce Tribal Forestry Division has interacted with several carbon offset organizations over the past 14 years.
Those working relationships grew and eventually lead to the Nez Perce being included in the U. Funds from this grant enabled the tribe to help educate themselves and other tribes. Another organization, the Environmental Defense Fund, contacted the tribe about their afforestation efforts and offered the Nez Perce the opportunity to be a consultant in evaluating criteria in the book "Harnessing Farms and Forests in the Low-Carbon Economy, How to Create, Measure, and Verify Greenhouse Gas Offsets".
It was this funding that really expanded the tribes knowledge of Carbon markets outside of the CCX. There are currently 3, enrolled members of the Nez Perce Tribe. In , the US Government entered into a Treaty with the Nez Perce, securing 7,, acres in exchange for outlying areas of Tribal domain.
With the discovery of gold in on the Reservation, the Treaty of diminished Tribal lands to about , acres. Under the Dawes Act of , Reservation land was allotted to individual Tribal members. The Tribe reserved 32, acres to be held in common, and about , acres in 2, allotments were allotted to individual Indian ownership. Carbon credits developed from carbon storage projects and emission reduction activities must meet voluntary market standards in order to provide quality assurance for purchasers.
Landowners and developers enroll their projects into certification programs which provide GHG accounting protocols for the quantification, monitoring, and reporting of the amount of stored carbon or reduced emissions. Various protocols have been developed and differ across organizations depending on the type of project.
Allowances, which typically authorize an entity to emit a ton of CO2e, can be auctioned or freely distributed to covered entities or other parties. Every greenhouse cap-and -trade program established to date has also allowed covered entities to submit offsets in lieu of allowances for compliance purposes. A covered entity in a cap-and-trade program, therefore, has several options for achieving compliance: The following table lays out the cap-and-trade systems currently used throughout the United States.
Beginning in , the state of California will also regulate GHGs through a cap-and-trade compliance program. This program will allow regulated emitters to purchase offsets that meet California Air Resources Board standards and protocols. The currently approved protocols, posted at http: The Air Resources Board is also evaluating additional protocols for adoption. Projects developed under ARB protocols may be listed on any offset project registry.
If the program is determined to be successful it will most likely serve as a model for future market developments. A greenhouse gas registry is an official repository to which an entity reports emissions of one or more GHGs or changes in emission levels, typically annually. Participants can include companies reporting entity—wide or on a project—by—project basis; all or parts of state government operations; individuals; or other parties responsible for emissions or emission reductions.
A GHG registry is subject to reporting and verification requirements to ensure data consistency and quality, and registries can support voluntary or mandatory reporting requirements. Aggregators track and report contracted offsets for the purposes of verification.
Some information on the carbon credit market comes from the following sources: Handbook of Carbon Offset Programs.
National Energy Technology Laboratory. National Indian Carbon Coalition NICC is a greenhouse gas management service providing project development resources and training for American Indian nations and landowner associations entering the carbon credit market.
Carbon credits, also called greenhouse gas offsets or emission reduction credits, are purchased by investors to offset their own CO2 emissions. Project types include, forestry, wetland restoration, farming, ranching, reclamation of mine lands, waste management and other types of conservation.
Most projects involve terrestrial carbon sequestration, or carbon dioxide sequestration, which increases the soil organic carbon SOC stock on lands. Terrestrial sequestration both removes CO2 from the air and stores it in soils and plants. Terrestrial sequestration has the added advantage that it can be quickly instituted and usually has ancillary benefits, such as better water retention, increased crop yields and improved wildlife habitat.
Benefits to Indian Country Many Indian reservations contain large land holdings, much of which are currently used for farming, ranching, or forestry. Benefits to carbon market enrollment include: Additional profit from land Preservation of Indian land ownership Promotion of land stewardship Greenhouse gas emissions reductions Promotion of soil health, ecological diversity, and water and air quality Click here for some examples of tribes who have already created projects.
What is Being Traded?